He comes to the Danish utility from a position as a director at British counterpart SSE, which has worked with Dong on the Walney offshore UK wind projects.
Since joining SSE in 2008, Anderson was seen as being key to SSE's move into offshore wind. During his time SEE upped its involvement in a number of large-scale offshore projects including the 9GW Dogger Bank and 3.5GW Firth of Forth zones.
However, the company announced this year that it will pull back from several offshore projects, scrapping the 690MW Islay and 340MW Galloper developments, as well as limiting its involvement in Dogger Bank.
In joining Dong, Anderson must resign his position at SSE because of the partnership between the two companies in offshore wind.
He takes over from Benny Loft, who has been acting chairman since Dong's annual general meeting on 12 March.