The German Maritime Search and Rescue Service dispatched a lifeboat to the vessel early on Monday morning (7 July) with a volunteer emergency doctor and paramedics on board.
The man was transferred to List harbour before being airlifted to a hospital in Heide, northern Germany.
Dutch contractor Ballast Nedam, owner of the Svanen vessel, said the man, a Danish national, remains in a critical condition in hospital.
A rescue helicopter was unable to travel to the construction vessel due to electrical storms in the area. The storms had passed once the injured man arrived in List.
The company said the causes of the accident remain unclear but it would cooperate fully with an investigation being conducted by the German authorities.
Construction at the project, 34 kilometres offshore, began in March. It will use 80 3.6MW Siemens turbines. It is being developed by German developer Wpd and the OWP Butendiek consortium.
Update: Monopile installation resumed Thursday (10 July) evening, following an investigation in to the cause of the accident. Measures have been put in place to prevent a reoccurence, said a Ballast Nedam spokesperson.
Wpd and Ballast Nedam are satisfied with the actions taken, the spokesperson added, and the injured worker will soon be transfered to a Danish hospital to be closer to home. His situation has been described as stable.