Trump's challenge to the 100MW European Offshore Wind Deployment Centre (EOWDC) in Aberdeen Bay went before the Court of Session, Scotland's supreme civil court, in November.
The US billionaire was looking to overturn the Scottish government's decision to grant the project construction consent, but the court rejected the challenge on Tuesday.
The American tycoon had argued that his company, Trump Organisation, had been denied a fair hearing when Scottish ministers refused to hold a public enquiry, citing the European Convention on Human Rights.
The Trump Organisation said in a statement: "Today's decision has not altered our unwavering commitment to protect our investment in Scotland. We are reviewing Lord Doherty's decision and will pursue the legal options available to us as recommended by our counsel."
The development, which lies 2-4.5 kilometres off the Aberdeenshire coast, received Scottish government approval in March.
It is 75% owned by Swedish utility Vattenfall and 25% by Aberdeen Renewable Energy Group and will allow manufacturers to test next-generation offshore wind turbines.
In October, members of Aberdeenshire council's Formartine area rejected an application from EOWDC for the construction of an electricity substation at Blackdog, near Trump's golf course.